What is the principle of the new coronavirus antigen detection reagent that can be tested at home?

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What is the principle of the new coronavirus antigen detection reagent that can be tested at home?

The State Council shall, based on the test results of the new coronavirus disease, conduct an antigen test for the new coronavirus group. The plan clearly stipulates that if community residents need self-examination, they can purchase antigen detection reagents through retail pharmacies, online sales platforms and other channels for self-examination. COVID-19 has four main structural proteins: S protein (S protein), nucleocapsid protein (nucleocapsid protein, N protein), membrane protein (membrane protein, M protein) and envelope protein (envelope protein, E protein).

Once the human body is infected with the virus, these structural proteins can act as immunogens to stimulate plasma cells to produce specific antibodies. Approved antigen detection products mainly use COVID-19N protein as the target of antigen detection. The sample source for antigen testing is usually nasal, throat or saliva. One of its features is that it produces fast results, which can be achieved in about 15 minutes. It can realize the early transfer of suspects. The operation is relatively simple, and the price is also the cheapest of the three detection methods, but the sensitivity of antigen detection is also low.

Nucleic acid detection is more accurate. Although there is no perfect detection method, nucleic acid detection is obviously closer to perfection than antigen detection. The data shows that the accuracy rate of the commonly used antigen detection kits for asymptomatic infection is only 58%. Nucleic acid detection can understand the number of viruses in this way, which can help analyze subsequent changes and control the epidemic as a whole. Antigen testing can only tell if there is an infection. Data sharing is not easy to achieve. Nucleic acid testing is carried out within the organization, and the results are networked for easy query and locking. Antigen self-inspection and notification rely on self-awareness, which is not conducive to the traceability of the epidemic situation.

Nucleic acid detection is still the mainstream when nucleic acid detection capabilities are available. Give out antigen test kits and let people test themselves, so they can know sooner whether a tester is contagious, and isolate the most contagious patients early. Antigen detection and nucleic acid detection should complement each other. Nucleic acid and antigen are important detection methods, and they have their own most applicable occasions. For example, when there is no nucleic acid detection capability, such as far away from the detection point, or when there is a fever or cold symptoms in the middle of the night, more convenient antigen detection can be used.

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